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doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2021.4.682eng

UDC: 636.52.58:619:616-099:591.1

Acknowledgements:
Supported financially by the Russian Science Foundation, grant No 20-76-10003 “The investigation of the effects of T-2 and NT-2 toxins on the digestive function in poultry, the development of methods of diagnostics and a new complex preparation for the prevention of mycotoxicoses”

 

THE INTESTINAL T-2 AND HT-2 TOXINS, INTESTINAL AND FECAL DIGESTIVE ENZYMES, MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL BLOOD INDICES IN BROILERS (Gallus gallus L.) WITH EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED T-2 TOXICOSIS

V.G. Vertiprakhov , A.A. Grozina, N.N. Gogina, I.V. Kislova,
N.V. Ovchinnikova, M.V. Koshcheyeva

Federal Scientific Center All-Russian Research and Technological Poultry Institute RAS, 10, ul. Ptitsegradskaya, Sergiev Posad, Moscow Province, 141311 Russia, e-mail Vertiprakhov63@mail.ru (✉ corresponding author), alena_fisinina@mail.ru, n.n.gogina@mail.ru, irina.kislova1606198@yandex.ru, natalya.o90@mail.ru, vlk.733@mail.ru

ORCID:
Vertiprakhov V.G. orcid.org/0000-0002-3240-7636
Kislova I.V. orcid.org/0000-0001-6399-6886
Grozina A.A. orcid.org/0000-0001-9654-7710
Ovchinnikova N.V. orcid.org/0000-0001-9877-2161
Gogina N.N. orcid.org/0000-0003-1937-286X
Koshcheyeva M.V. orcid.org/0000-0002-0744-1883

Received April 22, 2021

 

At present over 400 mycotoxins have been identified with mutagenic, teratogenic, embryotoxic, allergenic, and immunosuppressing properties, suppressing cellular and humoral immunity. Trichothecene mycotoxins are prevalent on the territory of Russian Federation, the most abundant and hazardous being T-2 and NT-2 toxins inducing gastroenterites, necroses of skin and mucosa of the oral cavity, disturbances in the function of central nervous system. The exposure limit for T-2 toxin in feeds for poultry is established in SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-1 at 100 μg/kg. Mycotoxin induced injuries of the organs are preceded by functional disturbances affecting the hematological status and enzymatic reactions in the digestive tract; the most exact data on these disturbances can be obtained by in vivo experiments on fistulated birds. We used this approach in our study in combination with the analyses of mycotoxin concentrations in lyophilized samples of duodenal chyme and feces by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS/MS). The aim of the study was the investigation of the T-2 toxin in the gastrointestinal tract and the effects of the toxin on the intestinal activities of the digestive enzymes and morphological and biochemical blood indices in cross Smena 8 broilers with experimentally induced T-2 toxicosis. Birds with chronic duodenal fistulae were fed the feeds contaminated with T-2 toxin in doses from 100 μg/kg (corresponding to the exposure limit statutorily set for chicken) to 400 μg/kg for 2 weeks. The measurements of the T2 toxin in the duodenal chyme and feces evidenced the transformation of T-2 to NT-2 toxin in the intestine and intense absorption of the latter into the bloodstream since its concentration in feces was significantly lower in compare to the duodenal chyme. All dietary doses of T-2 increased the duodenal activities of the total proteases (by 46.3-96.6 %, p < 0.05), lipase (by 16.8-25.5 %, p < 0.05), and amylase (by 99.7 %) at T-2 dose 400 μg/kg while activity of alkaline phosphatase decreased by 23.8-27.9 % (p < 0.05). In the feces the increase in proteolytic activity by 76.0-169.1 % (p < 0.05) and decreases in the activities of lipase (by 23.2 % at T-2 dose 400 μg/kg) and amylase (by 55.1-57.2 %) were found. The activity of trypsin in blood serum decreased by 12.2-22.2 % (p < 0.05) while the increases in the activity of alkaline phosphatase varied from 52.4 % to 5-fold. As a result the phosphatase-protease index increased from 31 to 92 in average. At T-2 dose 400 μg/kg the decreases in the concentrations in blood serum of total protein (by 13.2 %, p < 0.05), glucose (by 13.5 %, p < 0.05), and triglycerides (4-fold) were found. The total leukocyte number in blood decreased by 15.8-16.6 %. At T-2 doses 100 and 200 μg/kg the trend to higher percentage of the lymphocytes was found though the percentage of neutrophils remained unaffected, evidencing the activation of the specific antitoxic protective mechanisms. The inversed correlations between the degree of the transformation of T-2 toxin into NT-2 toxin and tryptic activity in duodenal chyme and phosphatase-protease index in blood serum were found; these correlations can be used in the diagnostic test for T-2 toxicosis.

Keywords: T-2 toxin, NT-2 toxin, T-2 toxicosis, broilers, duodenal chime, digestive enzymes, proteases, lipase, amylase, biochemical blood indices, trypsin, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, cell blood composition, leukocytic formula.

 

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