doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2019.1.38eng

UDC 614.14:631.52:575.222.6

Supported financially by Russian Foundation for Basic Research,
project No. 17-44-500827



A.A. Goncharenko, А.V. Makarov, S.A. Ermakov, T.V. Semenova,
V.N. Tochilin, N.V. Tsygankova, O.A. Krahmaleva

Federal Research Center Nemchinovka, 6, ul. Agrochimikov, pos. Novoivanovskoe, Odintsovo Region, Moscow Province, 143026 Russia, e-mail (✉ corresponding author),,,,,,

Goncharenko A.A.
Tochilin V.N.
Makarov А.V.Х
Tsygankova N.V.
Ermakov S.A.
Krakhmaleva O.A.
Semenova T.V.

Received June 26, 2018


Creation of F1 heterosis hybrids instead of population varieties is an advanced breeding technology since XX century. The rye as a strictly cross-pollinated culture is rather perspective for heterotic breeding. The success depends on the use of rye homozygous lines with high combining ability. The topcrossing allows effective estimates of the best genotypes to be used in synthesis of high heterotic hybrids. This paper is the first characterization of the authors' winter rye unique high-homozygous inbred lines, which are based on three Russian gene pools, with high combining ability intended for breeding programs. The purpose of our researches was to estimate by topcrossing method the general and specific combining ability of winter rye inbred lines. Test crossings in 2016 involved five sterile lines with type Pampas cytoplasm (Н-649, Н-577, Н-842, Н-1058, and Н-1185), and four male fertile lines (Н-451, Н-1011, Н-1247, and Н-1071) as testers. In total, 20 simple F1 interlinear hybrids were selected. In 2017, the hybrids were studied in plot tests (8 m2 plots, 3 replications, and 500 grains per 1 m2). F1 hybrid yields varied from 5.02 up to 7.90 t/ha vs. 6.50 t/ha yield of population variety Valdai. The highest yield had F1 (Н-649 × Н-1011, i.e. 7.9 t/ha that is 21.5 % higher compared to the standard Valdai variety. As a whole, the frequency of F1 hybrids with high competitive heterosis is 7 of 20 (or 35 %). Variation of F1 productivity is mainly due to different combining ability of their parents.Note, both general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA) contribute to a dispersion of productivity trait, thought GCA effects account to 91.1 % while SCA only 7.7 %. Thence, additive gene effects but not intralocus dominance are the basic genotypic components of productivity trait variance. The obtained GCA/SCA values specify on high enough genetic divergence of the inbred lines used. Sterile analogues of lines Н-1185 and Н-649, and also of paternal line-tester Н-1011 possess high GCA effects. The dwarf lines Н-577 and Н-1071 show lower general combining ability. High SCA effects are characteristic of the sterile lines Н-1058 and Н-649, and also the testers Н-1071 and Н-451. It was revealed that GCA of the used rye lines positively correlates with plant height (r = 0.85±0.10), 1000-grain weight (r = 0.80±0.13) and grain weight per ear (r = 0.64±0.21). These data emphasize the importance of inbred lines’ selection for high own performance and combining of high 1000-grain weight and a dwarfism.

Keywords: Secale cereale L., winter rye, cytoplasmic male sterility, CMS, tester,  homozygous inbred line, F1 hybrids, general combining ability, GCA, specific combining ability (SCA), yield, 1000-grain weight, grain weight per ear, dwarfism.




  1. Geiger H.H., Schnell F.W. Cytoplasmic male sterility in rye (Secale cereale L.). Crop. Sci., 1970, 10(5): 590-593 CrossRef
  2. Geiger H.H., Wilde P., Erfurt M., Pakas I. Heterosis of factorial inter-pool single crosses among elite winter rye inbred lines. Proc. EUCARPIA Rye Meeting (Juli 4-7, 2001, Radzikow, Poland). Radzikow, 2001: 19.
  3. Wilde P., Bajgain P., Dopierala P., Gordillo A., Korzun V., Menzel J., Schmiedchen B., Steffan P. Genetic gain from hybrid rye breeding: achievements and challenges. Proc. EUCARPIA Cereals Section Conference 2015. Int. Conf. on Rye Breeding and Genetics (June 24-26, 2015, Wroclaw, Poland). Wroclaw, 2015: 20-21 CrossRef
  4. Laidig F., Piepho H.-P., Rentel D., Drobek T., Meyer U., Huesken A. Breeding progress, variation and correlation of grain and quality traits in winter rye hybrid and population varieties and national on-farm progress in Germany over 26 years. Theor. Appl. Genet., 2017, 130(5): 981-998 CrossRef
  5. Miedaner T. Roggen. DLG-Verlag, Franrfurt/Main, 1997.
  6. Geiger H.H., Miedaner T. Rye breeding. In: Cereals (Handbook of Plant Breeding). M.J. Carena (ed.). Springer Science + Business Media LLC, 2009: 157-182.
  7. Banaszak Z., Banaszak K., Kaczmarek K. Rye varieties in Poland. Proc. EUCARPIA Cereals Section Conference 2015. Int. Conf. on Rye Breeding and Genetics (June 24-26, 2015, Wroclaw, Poland). Wroclaw, 2015: 23-24 CrossRef
  8. Larsen R.J. Historical, current and potential future trends for rye production and breeding in Canada. Proc. EUCARPIA Cereals Section Conference 2015. Int. Conf. on Rye Breeding and Genetics (June 24-26, 2015, Wroclaw, Poland). Wroclaw, 2015: 21 CrossRef
  9. Goncharenko A.A. Aktual'nye voprosy selektsii ozimoi rzhi [Current issues of winter rye breeding]. Moscow, 2014 (in Russ.).
  10. Geiger H.H. Hybrid breeding in diploid rye. Proc. EUCARPIA Meeting of the Cereal Section on Rye (June 11-13th 1985, Svalöv, Sweden). Svalov, 1985: 237-265.
  11. Derevyanko V.P., Egorov D.K. Aktual'nye voprosy geterozisnoi selektsii ozimoi rzhi [Current issues of winter rye heterotic breeding]. Khar'kov, 2008 (in Russ.)..
  12. Lapikov N.S., Kobylyanskii V.D., Katerova A.G. V sbornike: Geneticheskie resursy kul'turnykh rastenii [In: Genetic resources of cultivated plants]. St. Petersburg, 2001: 333-335 (in Russ.).
  13. Miedaner T., Muller B.U., Piepho H.-P., Falke K.C. Genetic architecture of plant height in winter rye introgression libraries. Plant Breeding, 2011, 130 (2): 209-216 CrossRef
  14. Goncharenko A.A., Ermakov S.A., Makarov A.V., Semenova T.V., Tochilin V.N., Krakhmaleva O.A. Dostizheniya nauki i tekhniki APK, 2016, 9: 19-22 (in Russ.).
  15. Sokolov B.P., Kostyuchenko V.I. K voprosu vybora testerov dlya otsenki kombinatsionnoi sposobnosti linii kukuruzy v topkrossakh. Sel’skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya [Agricultural Biology], 1978, 13(1): 44-48 (in Russ.).
  16. Bondar' V.T. V sbornike: Selektsiya i semenovodstvo [In: Breeding and seed production]. Kiev, 1973, vypusk 24: 3-8 (in Russ.).
  17. Tomerius A.-M., Miedaner T., Geiger H.H. A model calculation approach towards the optimization of a standart scheme of seed-parent line development in hybrid rye breeding. Plant Breeding, 2008, 127(5): 433-440 CrossRef
  18. Miedaner T., Geiger H.H. Estimates of combining ability for resistance of winter rye to Fusarium culmorum head blight. Euphytica, 1996, 89(3): 339-344 CrossRef
  19. Oettler G., Heinrich N., Miedaner T. Estimates of additive and dominance effects for Fusarium head blight resistance of winter triticale. Plant Breeding, 2004, 123(6): 525-530 CrossRef
  20. Reif J.C., Hahn V., Melchinger A.E. Genetic basis of heterosis and prediction of hybrid performance. Helia, 2012, 35(57): 1-8 CrossRef
  21. Smith O.S. Covariance between line per se and testcross performance. Crop Sci., 1986, 26(3): 540-543 CrossRef
  22. Vol'f V.G., Litun P.P. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po primeneniyu matematicheskikh metodov dlya analiza eksperimental'nykh dannykh po izucheniyu kombinatsionnoi sposobnosti [Methodical recommendations on the use of mathematical methods for the analysis of experimental data on the study of combining ability]. Khar'kov, 1980 (in Russ.).
  23. Fischer S., Mohring J., Schon C.C., Piepho H.-P., Klein D., Schipprack W., Utz H.F., Melchinger A.E., Reif J.C. Trends in genetic variance components during 30 years of hybrids maize breeding at the University of Hohenheim. Plant Breeding, 2008, 127(5): 446-451 CrossRef
  24. Miedaner T., Schwegler D.D., Wilde P., Reif J.C. Association between line per se and testcross performance for eight agronomic and quality traits in winter rye. Theor. Appl. Genet., 2014, 127(1): 33-41 CrossRef
  25. Geiger H.H., Miedaner T. Hybrid rye and heterosis. In: The genetics and exploration of heterosis in crops.  ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, USA, 1999: 439-450.
  26. Kolasinska I. Heterosis of interlinear rye hybrids. Aufgaben und Entwicklungstendenzen der Roggen Forschung und Roggenzühtung, 1982, 198: 341-347.