doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2022.5.911eng

UDC: 633.11:631.53.011:57.084.1

Supported financially from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (Agreement with the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 075-15-2020-805 dated 10/02/2020)



N.S. Priyatkin, M.V. Arkhipov, P.A. Shchukina, G.V. Mirskaya,
Yu.V. Chesnokov

Agrophysical Research Institute, 14, Grazhdanskii prosp., St. Petersburg, 195220 Russia,e-mail (✉ corresponding author),,,,

Priyatkin N.S.
Mirskaya G.V.
Arkhipov M.V.
Chesnokov Yu.V.
Shchukina P.A.

Received July 29, 2022

For quality control of seed material, there are a number of standard tests adopted by ISTA (International Seed Testing Association, Switzerland) as well as promising instrumental methods evaluating the characteristics of seed surface, structural integrity and integral electrophysical parameters. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of instrumental physical methods in detection of latent defects of ecologically heterogeneous wheat seeds of various genetic origin. Diversity and latent defectiveness of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L.) were evaluated using optical imaging, microfocus radiography, and electrophotography. It was found that the optical imaging method combined with automatic analysis of digital scanned images is statistically reliable to distinguish wheat seeds of different varieties and genetic lines by color characteristics of the RGB (red, green, blue) model, e.g., Hue and Saturation. Differences were also found between the seeds of the same variety and genetic line grown under field and regulated conditions. E.g., the Hue values varied from 0.081±0.0005 to 0.090±0.0006 for regulated conditions (the phytopolygon of the Agrophysical Research Institute) and from 0.084±0.0005 to 0.088±0.0005 for field conditions, the Saturation values — from 0.326±0.0005 to 0.419±0.0006 and from 0.371±0.0005 to 0.444±0.0005, respectively. With an increase in the number of cracks in the X-ray projections of wheat grains, their sowing qualities decrease. Microfocus radiography combined with automatic analysis of digital X-ray images successfully detects the damage to wheat seeds by the corn bug, and with the increase of the damage score the sowing quality of seeds in general decreases. Parameters of the digital X-ray images of seeds (Average Intensity, Shape Coefficient, and Entropy) differed between wheat varieties. The Average Intensity varied from 53.30±1.00 to 60.60±1.17, the Form coefficient from 6.67±0.35 to 8.28±0.48, and Entropy from 1.84±0.06 to 1.98±0.03. The research data indicate the effectiveness of the approaches we propose based on instrumental physical methods in the assessment of different quality and latent defectiveness of wheat seeds. Our findings make a background for the functional non-invasive diagnosis of seed quality based on the complex evaluation of external and internal anomalies and defects, significantly affecting both the biological quality of seeds and their economic suitability. This is a methodologically new tool to be used in breeding and controlled seed production.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., wheat, seed quality, optical imaging, microfocus X-ray imaging, electrophotography, image analysis.



  1. Šramkováa Z., Gregováb E., Šturdíka E. Chemical composition and nutritional quality of wheat grain. Acta Chimica Slovaca, 2009, 2(1): 115-138.
  2. Ricachenevsky F.K., Vasconcelos M.W., Shou H., Johnson A.A.T., Sperotto R.A. Improving the nutritional content and quality of crops: promises, achievements, and future challenges. FrontiersinPlantScience, 2019, 10: 738 CrossRef
  3. Shpilev N.S., Torikov V.E., Klimenkov F.I. Vestnik Bryanskoy gosudarstvennoy sel’skokhozyaystvennoy akademii, 2018, 3(67): 3-5 (in Russ.).
  4. Arkhipov M.V., Velikanov L.P., Zheludkov A.G., Gusakova L.P., Alferova D.V., Potrakhov N.N., Priyatkin N.S. Biotekhnosfera, 2013, 6(30): 40-43 (in Russ.).
  5. Pearson T.C., Cetin A.E., Tewfik A.H., Haff R.P. Feasibility of impact-acoustic emissions for detection of damaged wheat kernels. Digital Signal Processing 2007, 17(3): 617-633 CrossRef
  6. Arruda N., Silvio M.C., Gomes F.G.J. Radiographic analysis for the evaluation of polyembryony in Swingle citrumelo seeds. Journal of Seed Science, 2018, 40(2): 118-126 CrossRef
  7. Abud H.F., Cicero S.M., Gomes F.G.J. Radiographic images and relationship of the internal morphology and physiological potential of broccoli seeds. Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy, 2018, 40: e34950 CrossRef
  8. Huang M., Wang Q.G., Zhu Q.B., Qin J.W., Huang G. Review of seed quality and safety tests using optical sensing technologies. Seed Science and Technology, 2015, 43(3): 337-366 CrossRef
  9. van Duijn B., Priyatkin N.S., Bruggink H., Gomes F., Boelt B., Gorian F., Martinez M.A. Advances in technologies for seed science and seed testing. Informativo ABRATES, 2017, 27(2): 18-22.
  10. Dell’Aquila A. Computerised seed imaging: a new tool to evaluate germination quality. Commun. Biometry Crop Sci., 2006, 1(1): 20-31.
  11. Boelt B., Shrestha S., Salimi Z., Jørgensen J.R., Nicolaisen M., Carstensen J.M. Multispectral imaging — a new tool in seed quality assessment? Seed Science Research, 2018, 28(3): 222-228 CrossRef
  12. Jalink H., Frandas A., van der Schoor R., Bino J.B. Chlorophyll fluorescence of the testa of Brassica oleracea seeds as an indicator of seed maturity and seed quality. Scientia Agricola (Piracicaba, Braz.). 1998, 55: 88-93 CrossRef
  13. Arkhipov M.V., Potrakhov N.N. Mikrofokusnaya rentgenografiya rasteniy [Microfocus radiography of plants]. St. Petersburg, 2008 (in Russ.).
  14. Gomes-Junior F.G., Yagushi J.T., Belini U.L., Cicero S.M., Tomazello-Filho M. X-ray densitometry to assess internal seed morphology and quality. Seed Science and Technology, 2012, 40(1): 102-107 CrossRef
  15. Del Nobile M.A., Laverse J., Lampignano V., Cafarelli B., Spada A. Applications of tomography in food inspection. In: Industrial tomography. Systems and applications. Woodhead Publishing, 2015: 693-710 CrossRef
  16. Foucat L., Chavagnat A., Renou J.-P. Nuclear magnetic resonance micro-imaging and X-radiography as possible techniques to study seed germination. Scientia Horticulturae, 1993, 55: 323-331.
  17. Martinez M.A., Priyatkin N.S., van Duijn B. Electrophotography in seed analysis: basic concepts and methodology. Seed Testing International, 2018, 156: 53-56.
  18. Widiastutia M.L., Hairmansisb A., Palupia E.R. and Ilyasa S. Digital image analysis using flatbed scanning system for purity testing of rice seed and confirmation by grow out test. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, 2018, 19(2): 49-56 CrossRef
  19. Wiesnerová D., Wiesner I. Computer image analysis of seed shape and seed color for flax cultivar description. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 2008, 61(2): 126-135 CrossRef
  20. Musaev F., Priyatkin N., Potrakhov N., Beletskiy S., Chesnokov Y. Assessment of Brassicaceae seeds quality by X-ray analysis. Horticulturae, 2022, 8(1): 29 CrossRef
  21. van der Burg W.J., Jalink H., van Zwol R.A., Aartse J.W., Bino R.J. Non-destructive seed evaluation with impact measurements and X-ray analysis. Acta Horticulturae, 1995, 362: 149-157.
  22. de Moreira M.L., van Aelst A.C., van Eck J.W., Hoekstra F.A. Pre-harvest stress cracks in maize (Zea mays L.) kernels as characterized by visual, X-ray and low temperature scanning electron microscopical analysis: effect on kernel quality. Seed Science Research, 1999, 9(3): 227-236 CrossRef
  23. Silva V.N., Cicero S.M., Bennett M. Relationship between eggplant seed morphology and germination. Revista Brasileira de Sementes,2012, 34(4): 597-604 CrossRef
  24. Bruggink H., van Duijn B. X-ray based seed image analysis. Seed Testing International, 2017, 153: 45-50.
  25. International Rules for Seed Testing, Full Issue i-19-8. Switzerland, 2020 CrossRef
  26. GOST R 59603-2021. Semena sel’skokhozyaystvennykh kul’tur. Metody tsifrovoy rentgenografii [GOST R 59603-2021. Seeds of agricultural crops. Digital radiography methods]. Moscow, 2021 (in Russ.).
  27. Sandeep V.V., Kanaka D.K., Keshavulu K. Seed image analysis: its applications in seed science research. International Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2013, 1(2): 30-36.
  28. Kapadia V.N., Sasidharan N., Patil K. Seed image analysis and its application in seed science research. Advances in Biotechnology and Microbiology, 2017, 7(2): 555709 CrossRef
  29. Pavlyushin V.A., Vilkova N.A., Sukhoruchenko G.I., Nefedova L.I., Kapustkina A.V. Vrednaya cherepashka i drugie khlebnye klopy [Bug harmful turtle and other bread bugs]. St. Petersburg, 2015 (in Russ.).
  30. Musaev F.B., Soldatenko A.V., Baleev D.N., Priyatkin N.S., Shchukina P.A. Agrofizika, 2019, 1: 38-44 CrossRef (in Russ.).
  31. Arkhipov M.V., Priyatkin N.S., Gusakova L.P., Karamysheva A.V., Trofimuk L.P., Potrakhov N.N., Bessonov V.B., Shchukina P.A. Zhurnal tekhnicheskoy fiziki, 2020, 90(2): 338-346 CrossRef (in Russ.).
  32. Arkhipov M.V., Priyatkin N.S., Gusakova L.P., Borisova M.V., Kolesnikov L.E. Metodika issledovaniya kharakteristik gazorazryadnogo svecheniya semyan [Method for studying the characteristics of gas-discharge luminescence of seeds]. St. Petersburg, 2016 (in Russ.).
  33. Alekseychuk G.N., Laman N.A. Fiziologicheskoe kachestvo semyan sel’skokhozyaystvennykh kul’tur i metody ego otsenki (metodicheskoe rukovodstvo) [Physiological quality of seeds of agricultural crops and methods for its assessment (methodological guide)]. Minsk, 2005 (in Russ.).
  34. Kolesnikov L.E., Razumova I.E., Radishevskiy D.Y., Priyatkin N.S., Arkhipov M.V., Kolesnikova Y.R. Influence of the structural and functional characteristics of the seeding material on the yield structure elements and resistance to leaf diseases of spring soft wheat. Agronomy Research, 2021, 19(4): 1791-1812 CrossRef
  35. Arkhipov M.V., Priyatkin N.S., Kolesnikov L.E. Izvestiya Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta, 2016, 44: 21-27 (in Russ.).







Full article PDF (Rus)

Full article PDF (Eng)