doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2019.5.946eng

UDC: 633.12:581.1:631.811



E.V. Tsypurskaya1, V.V. Kazantseva1, A.N. Fesenko2, N.V. Zagoskina1

1Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, 35, ul. Botanicheskaya, Moscow, 127276 Russia e-mail (corresponding author ✉),,;
2All-Russian Research Institute of Legumes and Groat Grops, 10/1, ul. Molodezhnaya, pos. Streletskoe, Orel, 302502 Russia, e-mail

Tsypurskaya E.V.
Fesenko A.N.
Kazantseva V.V.
Zagoskina N.V.

Received June 15, 2019


Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is an important agricultural crop; Russia, China and Ukraine are the world leaders of its production. In addition to the unique nutritional characteristics, it is characterized by the formation of various phenolic compounds including rutin widely used in medicine. The study of the various metabolites formation at the initial growth stages as well as those under the different conditions of mineral nutrition is important for estimation of plant potential productivity and adaptation to environmental conditions. In this paper, we showed the regulatory effect of macro- and microelements on the growth and accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites in buckwheat plants. For the first time, the formation of primary and secondary metabolites in the aerial parts of a new and promising Russian buckwheat variety Dasha (approved by the State Register of the Russian Federation in 2018) has been characterized. The aim of this work was to study the initial stages of F. esculentum ontogenesis, including the assessment of the morphophysiological characteristics of seedlings under various mineral nutrition conditions, as well as the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments, sugars, and phenolic compounds in cotyledon leaves. Studies were conducted using two varieties of this culture included in the State Register of the Russian Federation in 2004 and 2018 (Devyatka and Dasha, respectively). Plant cultivation was carried out by a roll method in water (control) and Hoagland-Arnon nutrient medium (sample) at 24 °C and 16-hour illumination in laboratory conditions. In the seedlings, the height of the hypocotyls, the length of the roots, and the mass of cotyledon leaves was determined. The water content of the plant material was analyzed after it was dried to constant weight at 70 °C. The spectrophotometric method was used to determine the amount of chlorophylls a and b (λ = 665 nm and λ = 649 nm), carotenoids (λ = 440 nm), sugars (λ = 490 nm), the total amount of soluble phenolic compounds (λ = 725 nm), flavono-ids (λ = 415 nm) and phenylpropanoids (λ = 330 nm) in ethanol extracts from cotyledon leaves of seedlings of different ages. The cultivation of buckwheat on Hoagland-Arnon nutrient medium contributed to faster growth of aboveground organs compared to control; in contrast, the growth of underground organs was the same in both cases. In most cases, in the experimental samples, the differences in the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids) and soluble sugars in the cotyledons of two buckwheat varieties were revealed to be higher than in control. As for the accumulation of phenolic compounds, it was not obviously dependent on the level of mineral nutrition. As an exception, in cotyledons of seedlings cultivated on a nutrient medium, the content of phenylpropanoids changed to a greater extent compared to control and reached high values at the end of the investigation period. It should also be noted that on a nutrient medium at the late ontogenesis stages cotyledons of Dasha seedlings significantly accumulate pigments, sugars and phenolic compounds in comparison with Devyatka. Thus, the obtained data indicate that the amount of mineral elements is important for the initial stages of F. esculentum ontogenesis. Faster growth of seedlings and the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites in their leaves is characteristic of the experimental samples, compared to the control. Therefore, in plant cultivation, the different levels of mineral nutrition make it possible to regulate the plant growth and development, as well as the accumulation of various metabolites.

Keywords: Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, buckwheat, seedlings, ontogenesis, mineral nutrition, pigments, sugars, phenolic compounds, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids.



  1. Hopkins W.G., Hüner N.P.A. Introduction to plant physiology. 4rd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY, 2008.
  2. Bouman F., Boesewinkel F.D. The seed: structure and function. In: Seed development and germination. K. Jaime, G. Gad (eds.). CRC Press, 2017.
  3. Chauhan B.S., Johnson D.E. Influence of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of eclipta (Eclipta prostrata) in a tropical environment. Weed Science, 2008, 56(3): 383-388 CrossRef
  4. Alieva Z.M., Samedova N.Kh., Yusufov A.G. Aridnye ekosistemy, 2013, 19(1): 54 (in Russ.). 
  5. Baxter A., Mittler R., Suzuki N. ROS as key players in plant stress signalling. Journal of Experimental Botany, 2013, 65(5): 1229-1240 CrossRef
  6. Zaprometov M.N. Fenol'nye soedineniya. Rasprostranenie, metabolizm i funktsii v rasteniyakh [Phenolic compounds. Distribution, metabolism and function in plants]. Moscow, 1993 (in Russ.). 
  7. Cheynier V., Comte G., Davies K.M., Lattanzio V., Martens S. Plant phenolics: recent advances on their biosynthesis, genetics, and ecophysiology. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 2013, 72: 1-20 CrossRef
  8. Nannipieri P., Badalucco L. Biological processes. In: Handbook of processes and modelling in the soil-plant system. D.K. Benbi, R. Nieder (eds.). Haworth, Binghamton, 2003.
  9. Volynets A.P. Fenol'nye soedineniya v zhiznedeyatel'nosti rastenii [Phenolic compounds in plant life]. Minsk, 2013 (in Russ.). 
  10. Kazantseva V.V., Goncharuk E.A., Fesenko A.N., Shirokova A.V., Zagoskina N.V. Features of the phenolics’ formation in seedlings of different varieties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Agricultural Biology [Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya biologiya], 2015, 50(5): 611-619 CrossRef
  11. Mierziak J., Kostyn K., Kulma A. Flavonoids as important molecules of plant interactions with the environment. Molecules, 2014, 19(10): 16240-16265 CrossRef
  12. Kumar V., Suman U., Rubal, Yadav S.K. Flavonoid secondary metabolite: biosynthesis and role in growth and development in plants. In: Recent trends and techniques in plant metabolic engineering. S. Yadav, V. Kumar, S. Singh (eds.). Springer, Singapore, 2018: 19-45 CrossRef
  13. Kreft M. Buckwheat phenolic metabolites in health and disease. Nutrition Research Reviews, 2016, 29(1): 30-39 CrossRef
  14. Suzuki T., Morishita T., Kim S.J., Park S.U., Woo S.H., Noda T., Takigawa S. Physiological roles of rutin in the buckwheat plant. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly: JARQ, 2015, 49(1): 37-43 CrossRef
  15. Vysochina G.I. Fenol'nye soedineniya v sistematike i filogenii semeistva grechishnykh [Phenolic compounds in the taxonomy and phylogeny of the buckwheat family]. Novosibirsk, 2004 (in Russ.). 
  16. Campbell C.G. Buckwheat: Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. Research Ltd., Morden, Mantitoba, 1997.
  17. Koyama M., Nakamura C., Nakamura K. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage. Journal of Food Science and Technology,2013, 50(1): 86-93 CrossRef 
  18. Nam T.G., Lee S.M., Park J.H., Kim D.O., Baek N.I., Eom S.H. Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts. Food Chemistry, 2015, 170: 97-101 CrossRef
  19. Sort Devyatka®. Available Accessed 21.10.2019 (in Russ.). 
  20. Sort Dasha®. Available Accessed 21.10.2019 (in Russ.). 
  21. Hoagland D.R., Arnon D.I. The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. In: Circular. California agricultural experiment station. University of California, Davis Libraries, 1950.
  22. Shlyk A.A. V sbornike: Biokhimicheskie metody v fiziologii rastenii [In: Biochemical methods in plant physiology]. Moscow, 1971: 154-170 (in Russ.). 
  23. Olenichenko N.A., Zagoskina N.V., Astakhova N.V., Trunova T.I., Kuznetsov Y.V. Primary and secondary metabolism of winter wheat under cold hardening and treatment with antioxidants. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 2008, 44(5): 589-594 CrossRef
  24. DuBois M., Gilles K.A., Hamilton J.K., Rebers P.T., Smith F. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry, 1956, 28(3): 350-356 CrossRef
  25. Martynenko G.E., Fesenko N.V., Fesenko A.N., Gurinovich I.A. Vestnik agrarnoi nauki, 2010, 25(4): 85-87 (in Russ.). 
  26. Fesenko A.N., Amelin A.V., Fesenko I.N., Biryukova O.V., Zaikin V.V. Zemledelie, 2018, 4: 36-38 CrossRef (in Russ.). 
  27. Mokronosov A.T., Gavrilenko V.F., Zhigalova T.V. Fotosintez. Fiziologo-ekologicheskie i biokhimicheskie aspekty [Photosynthesis. Physiological, environmental and biochemical aspects]. Moscow, 2006.
  28. Andrianova Yu.E., Tarchevskii I.A. Khlorofill i produktivnost' rastenii [Chlorophyll and plant productivity]. Moscow, 2000 (in Russ.). 
  29. Nisar N., Li L., Lu S., Khin N.C., Pogson B.J. Carotenoid metabolism in plants. Molecular Plant, 2015, 8(1): 68-82 CrossRef
  30. Sun T., Yuan H., Cao H., Yazdani M., Tadmor Y., Li L. Carotenoid metabolism in plants: the role of plastids. Molecular Plant, 2018, 11(1): 58-74 CrossRef
  31. Stange C. Carotenoids in nature: biosynthesis, regulation and function. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 2016 CrossRef
  32. Eveland A.L., Jackson D.P. Sugars, signaling and plant development. Journal of Experimental Botany, 2011, 63(9): 3367-3377 CrossRef
  33. Zaprometov M.N., Nikolaeva T.N. Chloroplasts isolated from kidney bean leaves are capable of phenolic compound biosynthesis. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2003, 50(5): 623-626 CrossRef
  34. Nagornyi V.D., Arimalala R.N. Vestnik Rossiiskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya: Agronomiya i zhivotnovodstvo, 2016, 3: 7-14 (in Russ.). 
  35. Sharafzadeh S., Khosh-Khui M., Javidnia K. Effect of nutrients on essential oil components, pigments and total phenolic content of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). Advances in Environmental Biology, 2011, 5(4): 639-647.







Full article PDF (Rus)

Full article PDF (Eng)