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doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2024.3.492eng

UDC: 633.111.1:631.52(571.1)

Acknowledgements:
Statistical processing of experimental data was supported by the Russian Scienсe Foundation (Agreement No. 22-16-20008; March 23, 2022). Field research was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation.

 

BREEDING SPRING BREAD WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) VARIETIES WITH FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF GRAIN FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY GROWING IN WESTERN SIBERIA

V.P. Shamanin1, I.V. Pototskaya1 , A.S. Chursin1, S.S. Shepelev1,
D.S. Nardin1, V.E. Pozherukova1, H. Köksel2, A.I. Morgounov3

1Stolypin Omsk State Agrarian University, 1, Institutskaya pl., Omsk, 644008 Russia, e-mail:p.shamanin@оmgau.оrg, iv.pоtоtskaya@оmgau.оrg (✉ corresponding author),as.chursin@оmgau.оrg, sergeysсhepelew@mail.ru,
ds.nardin@omgau.org, ve.pozherukova@omgau.org
2İstinye University, Maltepe Mah., Edirne Çırpıcı Yolu, No. 9 Zeytinburnu, İstanbul, 34010 Turkey, e-mail
hamitkoksel@gmail.com;
3Food and Agriculture Organization, King Abdulaziz Road, P.O. Box: 558, Riyadh, 11421 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, e-mail alexey.morgounov@gmail.com

ORCID: Shamanin V.P. orcid.org/0000-0003-4767-9957
Nardin D.S. orcid.org/0000-0002-5582-2074Pototskaya
I.V. orcid.org/0000-0003-3574-2875
Pozherukova V.E. orcid.org/0000-0001-8429-2167
Chursin A.S. orcid.org/0000-0001-6797-6145
Koksel H. orcid.org/0000-0003-4150-2413
Shepelev S.S. orcid.org/0000-0002-4282-8725
Morgounov A.I. orcid.org/0000-0001-7082-5655

Final revision received July 11, 2022
Accepted February 06, 2024

Climate change and environmental problems dictate the need for the development of wheat varieties with complex and prolonged resistance to diseases and drought tolerance. Breeding programs oriented for development of varieties suitable for ecological and organic farming will reduce production costs and pesticide load on agrocenoses for the coming decades. In this work, for the first time, the value of spring bread wheat varieties with complex resistance to leaf and stem rust under conditions of Western Siberia, for non-pesticide agricultural technology and intensive natural infectious background for obtaining environmentally friendly grain, including with the functional properties of purple-grained wheat, was revealed. During research, the yield of developed varieties was 3.4-4.4 t/ha, their economic efficiency was determined. The work purpose to evaluate the wheat varieties with complex resistance to diseases developed in Omsk SAU in the frame of shuttle breeding, as well as purple-grained variety on yield, the grain quality, and efficiency of their cultivation for non-pesticide agricultural technology and intensive infectious background under conditions of Western Siberia. The researches were conducted on experimental field of Omsk SAU (55°02′′N, 73°31′′E) under conditions of the southern forest-steppe of Western Siberia in 2016-2021. The research material were varieties and lines of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed in Omsk SAU from the competitive variety trial: early maturing Stolypinskaya 2, Niva 55, Agronomicheskaya 5, Lutescens 128-15; medium maturing Silantiy, Lutescens 27-12; late maturing EF 22. The checks were used early maturing variety Pamyati Azieva, medium maturing Duet, and late maturing Element 22. The evaluation of growing season duration and analysis of yield were recorded following methodical instructions of State variety Trial. The protein and gluten content was determined using device Infralum FT 10M («Lumeks», Russia) corresponds to State Standard ISO 12099-2017. The harvest was carried out with a single-phase combine Sampo-130 (Sampo-Rosenlew, Finland). Infection response of the varieties to leaf and stem rust (Puccinia triticina Erikss. and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. et Henn.) was recorded as recommended by CIMMYT scales: R resistant, damage degree 0-5 %; M heterogeneous type, pustules of various sizes, surrounded by or without chlorotic and necrotic spots; MR moderately resistant, 10-25 %; MS moderately susceptible, 30-50 %; S susceptible, > 50 %. In Kenya (Njoro), the varieties Niva 55, Silantius, and Lutescens 128-15 lines were evaluated under natural infectious of P. graminis Ug99 by CIMMYT scale. Identification of resistance genes to leaf and stem rust was carried out in accordance with the established protocols (http://maswheat.ucdavis.edu). Analysis of the phenolic compounds content and antioxidant properties of the purple-grained variety EF 22 compared to red-grained checks Pamyati Azieva and Element 22 was performed. The economic efficiency of the grain production of the studied varieties and lines was calculated. It is shown that in the years of epiphytoties (2016-2020), varieties with complex resistance under conditions of Western Siberia, on average in terms of yield had a significant increase in yield, depending on the genotype of the variety from 0.3 to 1.1 t/ha. The protein and gluten content in the grain of these varieties corresponded to the requirements for strong wheat (16 % and > 28 %, respectively). Based on PCA analysis of data for 2017-2019, upon high infectious load, a negative relationship was found between the damage from leaf and stem rust, yield and grain quality. Comparative evaluation of the recurrent variety Element 22 with complex resistance to leaf and stem rust (Lr10, Lr26/Sr31, Sr35) and its analogue E 22 with purple grain, revealed a statistically significant advantage of the yield, the content of total phenolic compounds in grain, including the bound phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity (565.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g and 62.7 %, respectively). An exceed in  the gross profit due to the cultivation of varieties with a complex resistance to diseases was 25-40%, without the market premium for EF 22 as a functional product. The decrease of the fungicidal load on wheat crops is important for the environmentally friendly production of grain and the preservation of the environment in Western Siberia.

Keywords: wheat, variety, genes, disease resistance, yield, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, organic farming.

 

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