doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2024.1.92eng

UDC: 633.111.1:575.224.46.044

The authors thank the reviewers for their contributions to the peer review of this work.
Supported financially by the project of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation No. FEWZ-2021-0007 “Adaptive ability of agricultural plants in extreme conditions of the Northern Trans-Urals”



N.A. Bome1, S. Salekh1, M.U. Utebayev2, K.P. Korolev1, L.I. Weisfeld3

1Tyumen State University, 6, ul. Volodarskogo, Tyumen, 625003 Russia, e-mail (✉ corresponding author),,;
2Limited Liability Partnership A.I. Barayev Research and Production Centre of Grain Farming, Republic of Kazakhstan, 021600, Akmola region, Shortandinsky District, Nauchny village, e-mail;
3Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics RAS, 4, ul. Kosygina, Moscow, 119334 Russia, e-mail

Bome N.A.
Korolev K.P.
Salekh S.
Weisfeld L.I.
Utebayev M.U.

Final revision received November 7, 2023
Accepted November 22, 2023

Currently, climate change and growing demand for food necessitate effective methods for crop improvement. Induced mutagenesis is a promising tool to create breeding material. This work, for the first time, established the potential of the chemical mutagen phosphemide on spring soft wheat. Particularly, it was revealed that seed treatment with an aqueous solution of the mutagen in optimal concentrations effectively increases genetic variability to select economically valuable forms. Our goal was to increase the genetic diversity of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using the chemical mutagen phosphemide and to determine the biological potential of mutants (M5, M6) based on the variability of morphological and productive traits under the conditions of the Northern Trans-Urals. A total of 29 spring soft wheat samples selected from mutant populations of two cultivars, Caraand Skant 3, from a hybrid (Cara × Skant 3), as well as three control cultivars, the Tyumenskaya 25, Tyumenskaya 29, Novosibirskaya 31 were involved in the study. Mutant samples were generated using the chemical mutagen phosphemide. The seeds were treated with a 0.002 and 0.01 % phosphemide aqueous solution for 3 hours. Identification of mutations and testing their stability were carried out in the second (M2) and third (M3) generations. Here, we submit data for M5 and M6 mutants grown under contrasting meteorological conditions in 2021-2022. Sowing, observations, records, description of morphological characteristics and biological properties of plants were carried out at the experimental site of the biological station of the Tyumen State University “Lake Kuchak” (Nizhnetavdinsky District of Tyumen Province). Electrophoretic analysis of gliadins was carried out in caryopsis of the 2021 harvest (M5). Based on grain electrophoretic analysis of the original and mutant plants, genetic formulas of gliadin were compiled, and the frequency of gliadin coding loci alleles (Gli) was determined. In field tests, significant differences occurred between genotypes in quantitative traits, e.g., plant height, linear dimensions and area of the flag leaf, number of productive stem per 1 m2, ear length, grain number and weight per ear. Correlation analysis revealed that the strength of the relationship between yield and other traits depends on the meteorological conditions of the growing season. The dependence of grain yield on the number of plants (r = 0.71, p < 0.05) and productive stems (r = 0.71, p < 0.05) per 1 m2, on plant height (r = 0.82, p < 0.05), chlorophyll content in flag leaf cells (r = 0.28, p > 0.05), and the number of grains per ear (r = 0.73, p < 0.05) was stronger under water and heat stress. Five mutants of spring soft wheat with a relatively high biological potential compared to other samples and standard cultivars were selected for a set of valuable traits. These mutants had the same allelic composition for gliadins. The yield was higher in 2022 and amounted to 396.1-518.2 g/m2 for the best mutants, and 355.0-424.5 g/m2 for the standard cultivars. Thus, the adaptation potential of spring soft wheat in the Northern Trans-Urals extreme conditions can be increased due to genetic variability of mutant populations. The biological effect of the chemical mutagen phosphemide has been proven to induce beneficial mutations in T. aestivum. Therefore, combination of mutational and recombination variability is effective in increasing genetic diversity.

Keywords: spring soft wheat, genotype, mutant forms, gliadin-coding loci, stress, resistance, quantitative characters, correlation.



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