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doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2023.3.458eng

UDC: 582.734:635.918:632.7:632.937

 

RELATIONSHIP OF THE ROSE VARIETIES INFESTATION LEVEL BY SPIDER MITE WITH THE BUSH STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS UNDER THE Phytoseiulus persimilis APPLICATION IN GREENHOUSES

V.V. Moor1 , E.G. Kozlova2, A.I. Anisimov3

1ZAO Agroholding Vyborzhets, 7/1, Tsentral’ny proezd, promzona Nizhnyaya, pos. Koltushskoye, Vsevolozhsky District, Leningrad Province, 188688 Russia, e-mail vladmoor@rambler.ru (✉ corresponding author);

2All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection, 3, sh. Podbel’skogo, St. Petersburg, 196608 Russia, e-mail kategen_vizr@mail.ru;
3Saint Petersburg State Agrarian University, 2, Peterburgskoe sh., St. Petersburg—Pushkin, 196601 Russia, e-mail anisimov_anatoly@mail.ru

ORCID:
Moor V.V. orcid.org/0009-0001-0474-4782
Anisimov A.I. orcid.org/0000-0003-0127-7610
Kozlova E.G. orcid.org/0000-0001-7124-7607

Final revision received February 06, 2023
Accepted April 07, 2023

Varieties of roses grown for cutting differ in the degree of costs for protection against pests, primarily from the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. To control this pest, from 6-8 to 25 or more treatments with acaricides are required. The predatory mite phytoseiulus Phytoseiulus persimilis A.-H. can be used as an alternative or addition to chemical treatments. Here, we report on a long-term monitoring of the spider mite abundance in commercial rose greenhouses. The observation allows us, for the first time, to assess a relationship between two Rosa hybrida variety-specific morphometric parameters, the area of a compound leaf segment and the total leaf area per bush, and an abundance of the spider mite in a triotrophic system, i.e., rose plant—spider mite—predatory mite. From this data, we obtained the equations to predict the development of the pest and determined the predatory mite number effective on a certain variety. This work aimed i) to assess the two-spotted spider mite infestation in a set of rose varieties, ii) to establish the relationship of the spider mite infestation level with the bush structure elements, and iii) to choose mathematical models for prediction of the pest infestation levels and the number of the predatory mite phytoseiulus necessary to use for the control of the pest. Observations on the two-spotted spider mite development were carried out in a block glass greenhouse of ZAO Agroleader (Vyborgsky District, Leningrad Province) on rose plants (Rosa sp., hybrid tea group) of 18 varieties. The area of the greenhouse was 45,000 m2. A scoring system was used to assess the infestation levels of roses by spider mites. The greenhouse was divided into plots. Each plot was a 3.95 m long (8.02 m2 in area) segment of a double row of rose bushes. The survey consisted of a visual inspection of plants and assignment of the infestation level score from 1 to 5. Surveys were carried out twice a month, the total number of counts per year was at least 24. The dynamics of rose plant infestation by spider mites was assessed over 8 years (2011-2018). Since 2011, on particular varieties, and since 2012, on the entire area of the rose greenhouse, the predatory mite Ph. persimilis, introduced continuously or into the infestation foci, was used to control the two-spotted spider mite. Continuous application from 3 to 10 individuals/m2 over the entire area of the greenhouse was carried out 1-1.5 times a month; from 10 to 60 individuals per bush were introduced into foci weekly until new significant foci of the pest continued to appear. Acaricides were used only in cases where the T. urticae infestation level exceeded 2.5 points. Seven days after the first treatment the second treatment was carried out. We determined the number of stems in the upper part of the bush (crown) and on the whole bush, the productive stem length, the number of lobes of the complicated leaf, the number of leaves on the entire stem and on 10 centimeters of the stem, the number of leaves in the bush crown and on the entire bush, the surface areas of the lobule and the entire leaf, the area of the leaves surface in the crown and in the entire bush. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between the occupancy of individual varieties of roses and the structural elements of their bushes, and regression analysis was used to describe it mathematically (rectilinear regression equations). To establish the relationship between the parameters of individual elements of the structure of rose bushes and the infestation level of spider mites, a two-factor ANOVA was used. When comparing the parameters of regression models built from sample data, the least squares method was used. In the most contrasting varieties Brazil and Aqua, the average long-term level of infection differed by 17.8 times. The remaining varieties could be divided into 6-8 groups, of which the most contrasting ones differed by 5.0 times. The rose varieties differed significantly in the average values of individual elements of the bushes structure. These were the number of stems per crown and per entire bush; the number of lobules of the compound leaf; the number of leaves per entire stem and per 10 cm of the stem; the number of leaves per crown and per entire bush; the productive stem length; the areas of the leaf lobule and the entire leaf; the leaf surface per bush and per its crown. Of the 12 indicators of the rose bush structure, a significant relationship with the infestation level of varieties by spider mites in the presence of phytoseiulus was found only for four indicators. These were the number of lobules in a compound leaf (r = 0.49±0.218, 0.95 < P < 0.99), the area of the leaf lobule (r = -0.52±0.214, 0.95 < P < 0.99), the leaf area of the bush crown (r = -0.70±0.179, P > 0.998), the leaf area of the entire bush (r = -0.65±0.189, P > 0.995). A very close relationship was found between the pest infestation of rose varieties and the multiplication of the leaf lobule area by the area of leaves per entire bush (r = -0.89±0.134, Р > 0.99999) or by the leaf area per crown (r = -0.94±0.096, P > 0.999999). Rectilinear regression equations were chosen for predicting the level of rose variety average infestation by T. urticae. It was yp = 2.57 - 0.073xz (with an error of 0.102±0.0154 points) for the first year of phytoseiulus application and yp = 2.89 - 0.127xz (with an error of 0.081±0.0156 points) for continuous use of phytoseiulus. For predicting the required releases of predatory mites, it was yph = 345 - 11.3xz (an error of 22.0±5.52 individuals per 1 m2 per year) for the first year and yph = 278 - 11.1xz (the error of which is 9.8±1.36 individuals per 1 m2 per year) for continuous use. In the equations, yp is the level of a particular rose variety average infestation by the two-spotted spider mite, points; yph is the number of Ph. persimilis required for releases in order to protect this variety from spider mites during a year, individuals per m2; х is the average area of a leaf segment (lobule) of a given rose variety, cm2; z is the average area of a bush crown leaves of a given rose variety, m2. These equations are recommended for use in the biological control of two-spotted spider mite on roses using Ph. persimilis.

Keywords: Rosa hybrida, rose varieties, bush, structure elements, commercial greenhouses, Tetranychus urticae, pest infestation level, Phytoseiulus persimilis, correlation analysis, regression analysis, forecasting models, rectilinear regression equations.

 

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