doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2023.3.447eng

UDC: 635.21:632.51:579.64



A.S. Golubev , T.A. Makhankova, V.G. Chernukha, S.I. Redyuk,
P.I. Borushko, A.S. Tkach, N.A. Pavlova, A.O. Berestetskiy

All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection, 3, sh. Podbel’skogo, St. Petersburg, 196608 Russia, e-mail (✉ corresponding author),,,,,,,

Golubev A.S.
Borushko P.I.
Makhankova T.A.
Tkach A.S.
Chernukha V.G.
Pavlova N.A.
Redyuk S.I.
Berestetskiy A.O.

Final revision received February 15, 2023
Accepted May 26, 2023

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a crop that needs biological control of perennial weeds (for example, perennial sowthistle Sonchus arvensis L.) due to the insufficient assortment of post-emergent chemical herbicides. The fungus Stagonospora cirsii J.J. Davis from the VIZR culture collection (All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection), being a producer of herbicidal metabolites, is able to infect Sonchus arvensis plants. In the present work, the possibility of using strain Stagonospora cirsii S-47 to control perennial sowthistle in small-scale field experiments was shown for the first time. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of Stagonospora cirsii S-47 in the form of chopped mycelium against perennial sowthistle on potato plantings in small-scale field trials. The trials were conducted during the growing seasons of 2020 and 2021 at the experimental field of the All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection (VIZR, Leningrad Province). Experiments were conducted on plantings of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) of Nevsky variety belonging to the medium-early group. Soil of the experimental site is sod-podzolic, loamy, with a humus content in the arable layer of 3-4 %, pH 6.3. The soil was ploughed in the autumn, and in the spring, the site was disked, cultivated, and furrows were cut. The planting rate of tubers was 25 per ha. Fertilizers were not applied. To exclude the influence of non-target objects on the results of the experiments, the treatment of the experimental plots with the herbicide Gezagard (2.0 l/ha) (OOO Syngenta, Russia) was carried out before the emergence of potato plants. The starter inoculate of Stagonospora cirsii S-47 was obtained by culturing the fungus for 3 days in liquid sucrose-soybean meal nutrient medium. The biomass was grown in a glass fermenter with a working volume of 5 l (Applikon Biotechnology, the Netherlans). The fermentation medium (4.8 l) was inoculated with 200 ml of the starter culture. After 6 days, the raw biomass was separated from the culture liquid by centrifugation (4000 rpm, SL40, Thermo FS, USA) and weighed. A 0.01 % solution of Tween 80 was added to the raw mycelium to a concentration of 50 g/l, and the mycelium was chopped with a blender (MaxoMixx, Bosch, Germany) for 1 min. Potato plantings were treated using a Mesto RESISTENT 3610 manual knapsack sprayer (MESTO Spritzenfabrik Ernst Stockburger GmbH, Germany) in accordance with the experimental scheme. The herbicide Agritox (1.2 l/ha; Nufarm GmbH & Co. KG, Australia) containing 500 g/l MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) in the form of a mixture of dimethylamine, potassium and sodium salts was used as a standard. We used the treatments: 1 — S. cirsii S-47 (50 kg/ha; working fluid consumption was 1000 l/ha), 2 — S. cirsii S-47 (100 kg/ha; 2000 l/ha), 3 — S. cirsii S-47 + Agritox (50 kg/ha + 0.6 l/ha; 1000 l/ha), 4 — Agritox (0.6 l/ha; 300 l/ha), 5 Agritox (1.2 l/ha; 300 l/ha), 6 — untreated control. During the treatments, the height of potato plants was 10-15 cm, and perennial sowthistle plants were in the stages from rosette to stalking, not exceeding 10 cm in height. The counts were performed on day 14 and day 28 after treatment by quantitative weight method. Biological efficacy (BE) was calculated vs. untreated control. Potato tubers were harvested manually from each plot to quantify the yield. In the absence of extreme weather conditions, the application of 50 kg/ha of S. cirsii mycelium significantly (by 53.9-59.2 %) reduced the weight of perennial sowthistle plants. However, the fungus did not completely eliminate the weed and was less effective than the herbicide Agritox at a dose of 0.6 l/ha. A twofold increase in the rate of application of S. cirsii led to an increase in its effect on the number of perennial sowthistle by 13 % on average. The use of S. cirsii in combination with Agritox (0.6 l/ha) improved treatment efficiency by an average of 15 % compared to the use of the herbicide alone. This made it possible to reduce the amount of the applied chemical by half without reducing the effectiveness of perennial sowthistle suppression. In 2020, the use of microbiological and chemical products contributed to an increase in crop yield by 4.7-10.1 %. The statistically significant (р < 0.05) increase in crop yield was with an individual application of 100 kg/ha of S. cirsii S-47 mycelium and 1.2 l/ha of herbicide Agritox. In 2021, the crop yield from the treated plots increased by 6.8-8.3 %, however there were no statistically significant differences between the treatments and the untreated control. To ensure maximum effect from the mycoherbicide, it should not be used in dry conditions (with a lack of moisture and high temperatures).  

Keywords: mycoherbicide, Stagonospora cirsii, potato, Sonchus arvensis, MCPA, 2-methyl-4-chlorphenoxyacetic acid.



  1. Duke S.O., Pan Z., Bajsa-Hirschel J., Boyette C.D. The potential future roles of natural compounds and microbial bioherbicides in weed management in crops. Adv. Weed Sci., 2022, 40(spe1): e020210054 CrossRef
  2. Golubev A.S., Berestetskiy A.O. Future directions for use of biological and biorational herbicides in Russia (review). Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya biologiya [Agricultural Biology], 2021, 56(5): 868-884 CrossRef
  3. Ivany J.A., Sanderson J.B. Quackgrass (Elytrigia repens) control in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) with clethodim. Phytoprotection, 2003, 84(1): 27-35 CrossRef
  4. Hoogar R., Jayaramaiah R., Bhairappanavar S.T., Tambat B., Pramod, G. Effect of different pre and post emergent herbicides on growth and yieldof potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Int. J. Pure App. Biosci., 2017, 5(5): 1030-1034 CrossRef
  5. Kalkhoran E.S., Alebrahim M.T., Abad H.R.M.C., Streibig J.C., Ghavidel A., Tseng T.-M.P. The joint action of some broadleaf herbicides on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) weeds and photosynthetic performance of potato. Agriculture, 2021, 11(11): 1103 CrossRef
  6. Fonseca L.F., Luz J.M., Duarte I.N., Wangen D.R. Weeds control with herbicides applied in pre-emergence in potato cultivation. Biosci. J., 2018, 34(2): 279-286 CrossRef
  7. Gitsopoulos T., Damalas C., Georgoulas I. Herbicide mixtures for control of water smartweed (Polygonum amphibium) and wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus) in potato. Weed Technology, 2014, 28(2): 401-407 CrossRef
  8. Jovović Z., Popović T., Velimirović A., Milić V., Dolijanović Ž., Šilj M., Poštić D. Efficacy of chemical weed control in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Agroznanje, 2013, 14(4): 487-495 CrossRef
  9. Baranowska A., Mystkowska I., Zarzecka K., Gugała M. Efficacy of herbicides in potato crop. J. Ecol. Eng., 2016, 17(1): 82-88 CrossRef
  10. Wei L. A new herbicide flurochloridone in potato field on Qinghai Plateau: application and safety. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 2021, 37(9): 149-154.
  11. Khatami A., Al-e-Ebrahim M., Mohebodini M., Majd R. Evaluating rimsulforon efficiency on controlling weeds in potato at different growth stages. Journal of Iranian Plant Protection Research, 2017, 31(1): 152-165 CrossRef
  12. Hajjaj B., El Oualkadi A. Evaluation of the effect of rimsulfuron and linuron on weed infestation and potato yield. International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology, 2019, 4(4): 1092-1095 CrossRef
  13. Redyuk S.I. Vestnik zashchity rasteniy, 2017, 2(92): 55-58 (in Russ.).
  14. Golubev A.S., Makhan’kova T.A. Novye i netraditsionnye rasteniya i perspektivy ikh ispol’zovaniya, 2018, 13: 504-506.
  15. Berestetskiy A.O. Vestnik zashchity rasteniy, 2017, 91(1): 5-12 (in Russ.).
  16. Berestetskiy A. Development of mycoherbicides. In: Encyclopedia of mycology. O. Zaragoza, A. Casadevall (eds.). Elsevier, 2021.
  17. Berestetskiy A.O., Kashina S.A., Sokornova S.V. Shtamm griba Stagonospora cirsii Davis 1.41, obladayushchiy gerbitsidnoy aktivnost’yu protiv bodyaka polevogo. Vserosiyskiy nauchno-issledovatel’skiy institut zashchity rasteniy (RF). Zayavl. 07.05.13. № 2515899C1. Opubl. 20.05.2014 [The fungus strain Stagonospora cirsii Davis 1.41, which has herbicidal activity against the wild thistle. All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection (RF). Appl. 05/07/13. № 2515899C1. Publ. 05/20/2014](in Russ.).
  18. Berestetskiy A.O., Dalinova A.A., Dubovik V.R. Shtamm griba Stagonospora cirsii G-51 VIZR — produtsent gerbarumina I i stagonolida A. Vserosiyskiy nauchno-issledovatel’skiy institut zashchity rasteniy (RF). Zayavl. 28.12.18. № 2701817[EK1] S1. Opubl. 01.10.2019 [Stagonospora cirsii strain G-51 VIZR is a producer of herbarumin I and stagonolide A. All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection (RF). Appl. 12/28/18. № 2701817[EK1] S1. Publ. 10/01/2019] (in Russ.).
  19. Sokornova S.V., Khyutti A.V., Berestetskiy A.O. Vestnik zashchity rasteniy, 2011, 3: 53-57 (in Russ.).
  20. Sokornova S.V., Berestetskiy A.O. Liquid fermentation ofStagonospora cirsii C-163, a potential mycoherbicide forCirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya biologiya [Agricultural Biology], 2018, 53(5): 1054-1061 CrossRef
  21. Frolova G.M., Kotlova E.R., Sokornova S.V., Senik S.V., Shavarda A.L., Misharev A.D., Berestetskiy A.O. Prikladnaya biokhimiya i mikrobiologiya, 2021, 57(2): 152-162 CrossRef (in Russ.).
  22. Yuzikhin O., Mitina G., Berestetskiy A. Herbicidal potential of stagonolide, a new phytotoxic nonenolide from Stagonospora cirsii. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55(19): 7707-7711 CrossRef
  23. Dalinova A., Dubovik V., Petrova M., Berestetskiy A., Chisty L., Kochura D., Ivanov A., Smirnov S., Zolotarev A., Evidente A. Stagonolides J and K and stagochromene A, two new natural substituted nonenolides and a new disubstituted chromene-4,5-dione isolated from Stagonospora cirsii S-47 proposed for the biocontrol of Sonchus arvensis. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2019, 67(47): 13040-13050 CrossRef
  24. Berestetskiy A., Dmitriev A., Mitina G., Lisker I., Andolfi A., Evidente A. Nonenolides and cytochalasins with phytotoxic activity against Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis: a structure-activity relationships study. Phytochemistry, 2008, 69(4): 953-960 CrossRef
  25. Rivero-Cruz J.F., Macías M., Cerda-García-Rojas C.M., Mata R. A new phytotoxic nonenolide from Phoma herbarum. J. Nat. Prod., 2003, 66(4): 511-514 CrossRef
  26. Fogelfors H., Lundkvist A. Selection in Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and Sonchus arvensis L.: Susceptibility to MCPA on different types of farmland in Sweden, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B — Soil & Plant Science, 2008, 58(1): 82-87 CrossRef
  27. Bourdôt G.W., Hurrell G.A., Saville D.J. Variation in the efficacy of a mycoherbicide and two synthetic herbicide alternatives. Proc. XII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. La Grande Motte, 2007: 507-511 CrossRef
  28. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po registratsionnym ispytaniyam gerbitsidov v sel’skom khozyaystve /Pod redaktsiey V.I. Dolzhenko [Guidelines for registration trials of herbicides in agriculture. V.I. Dolzhenko (ed.)]. St. Petersburg, 2013 (in Russ.).
  29. Golubev A.S., Makhan’kova T.A. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po provedeniyu registratsionnykh ispytaniy gerbitsidov [Guidelines for conducting registration trials of herbicides]. St. Petersburg, 2020 (in Russ.).
  30. Harding D.P., Raizada M.N. Controlling weeds with fungi, bacteria and viruses: a review. Front. Plant Sci.,2015,6: 659 CrossRef
  31. Chalak‐Haghighi M., Van Ierland E.C., Bourdôt G.W., Leathwick D. Management strategies for an invasive weed: A dynamic programming approach for Californian thistle in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 2008, 51(4): 409-424 CrossRef
  32. Grant N., Prusinkiewicz E., Mortensen K., Makowski R. Herbicide Interactions with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae a bioherbicide for round-leaved mallow (Malva pusilla) control. Weed Technology, 1990, 4(4): 716-723 CrossRef
  33. Gressel J. Herbicides as synergists for mycoherbicides, and vice versa. Weed Science, 2010, 58(3): 324-328 CrossRef
  34. López-Piñeiro A., Peña D., Albarrán A., Sánchez-Llerena J., Becerra D. Behavior of MCPA in four intensive cropping soils amended with fresh, composted, and aged olive mill waste. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 2013, 152: 137-146 CrossRef
  35. Pereira T., Cerejeira M.J., Espírito-Santo J. Use of microbiotests to compare the toxicity of water samples fortified with active ingredients and formulated pesticides. Environmental Toxicology, 2000, 15(5): 401-405 CrossRef
  36. Mierzejewska E., Baran A., Urbaniak M. The influence of MCPA on soil phytotoxicity and the presence of genes involved in its biodegradation. Archives of Environmental Protection, 2018, 44(4): 58-64.
  37. TeBeest D., Templeton G.E. Mycoherbicides: progress in the biological control of weeds. Plant Disease, 1985, 69: 6-10.
  38. Stewart-Wade S.M., Boland G.J. Oil emulsions increase efficacy of Phoma herbarum to control dandelion but are phytotoxic. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 2005, 15(7): 671-681 CrossRef
  39. Siva C. Alternative strategies for broadleaf weed management in residential lawns. Guelph, Ontario, Canada, 2014.







Full article PDF (Rus)

Full article PDF (Eng)