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doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2021.3.450eng

UDC: 633.11:631.52

Acknowledgements: The
Supported financial frоm the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation

 

LARGE-GRAINED WHEATGRASS VARIETY SOVA (Thinopyrum intermedium) AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO PERENNIAL WHEAT

V.P. Shamanin1, A.I. Mоrgounоv1, A.N. Aydarov1, S.S. Shepelev1,
A.S. Chursin1, I.V. Pototskaya1 , O.F. Khamova2, L.R. DeHaan3

1Stolypin Omsk State Agrarian University, 1, Institutskaya pl., Omsk, 644008 Russia, e-mail vp.shamanin@оmgau.оrg, an.aydarov35.06.01@оmgau.оrg, sergeysсhepelew@mail.ru, as.chursin@оmgau.оrg, iv.pоtоtskaya@оmgau.оrg (corresponding author ✉);
2Omsk Agrarian Scientific Center, 26,Korolev pr., Omsk, 644012 Russia, e-mail olkhaa48@mail.ru;
3The Land Institute, 2440 E. Water Well Rd., Salina, KS 67401, USA, e-mail dehaan@landinstitute.org

ORCID:
Shamanin V.P. orcid.org/0000-0003-4767-9957
Chursin A.S. orcid.org/0000-0001-6797-6145
Morgоunov A.I. orcid.org/0000-0001-7082-5655
Pototskaya I.V. orcid.org/0000-0003-3574-2875
Aydarov A. orcid.org/0000-0003-1031-3417
Khamova O.F. orcid.org/0000-0002-0236-0304
Shepelev S.S. orcid.org/0000-0002-4282-8725
DeHaan LR. orcid.org/0000-0002-6368-5241

Received August 20, 2020

For the last decades, due to climate warming, environmental threats, increasing of energy intensity of the grain production, wider usage of perennial cultures as an alternative to annual agricultural cultures, more resistant to negative biotic and abiotic environmental factors has been proposed. The large-grained wheatgrass variety Sova was created at Omsk State Agrarian University via mass selection of wintered biotypes from the population of Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey obtained from The Land Institute (Kansas, USA), with following targeted cross-pollination and creation of new winter-hardy population. In 2020, the variety was registered in the State register of breeding achievements approved for use for all regions of the Russian Federation. For the first time, the biological and economical significance of the large-grained wheatgrass variety Sova as an alternative to perennial wheat is presented in this work. The variety Sova of Thinopyrum intermedium is recommended for cultivation as grain and fodder crop during four-six years, the variety forms grain with high protein content and good quality hay. The goal of this research is evaluation of economically valuable traits of new large-grain wheatgrass variety Sova under conditions of southern forest-steppe of Western Siberia, as well as to determine the correlation of spike components with plant height for increasing of the selection efficiency and thousand kernel weight. The research was carried out in the experimental field of Omsk State Agrarian University under conditions of the southern forest-steppe of Western Siberia in 2015-2019. A new wheatgrass variety Sova (Thinopyrum intermedium), winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Omskaya 4, and spring bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) cvs. Element 22 and Pamyati Azieva were compared. The spike productivity traits of 100 spikes of wheatgrass, i.e., spike weight and length, number of spikelets and grains per spike, grain weight per spike, etc., were evaluated. The thousand kernel weight and spike harvest index were calculated. The grain yield and biomass were determined. The correlations of productivity components with plant height were analyzed. The grain morphometric parameters of variety Sova and spring bread wheat Pamyati Aziev (area, perimeter, length, width, and circularity) were compared. The grain and hay quality was evaluated. For wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), winter wheat variety Omskaya 4, and spring variety Element 22, the length, width, average diameter, volume, main area, number of root tips, and total root length were determined. The biological activity of the rhizosphere of Thinopyrum intermedium compared to winter wheat variety Omskaya 4, and spring bread wheat variety Element 22 was evaluated. The soil samples for accounting of microorganisms were taken in the shoots phase, after winter survival, and in the heading phase. It was found that grain yield, biomass, and hay of the variety Sova for three years of reproduction increased every year and averaged 9.2, 210.3, and 71.0 centner per hectare, respectively. Grain quality indicators were high, the 19.4 % protein and 36.3 % gluten content. The variety Sova has many grains per spike, on average more than 50, thousand kernel weight is 9.7 g, and spike harvest index is 51 %. The length of all roots of Thinopyrum intermedium was 6.9-9.8 times longer compared to that of winter and spring varieties. The total number of agronomically important groups of microorganisms was 2.2 times higher, the intensity of mineralization (abundance of microorganism on starch ammonia agar to meat peptone agar SAA/MPA) was 58 % higher than in winter wheat variety Omskaya 4. The rate of cellulose decomposition was 13.7 and 21.4 % higher than in winter and spring wheat varieties. According to the studying the correlations between thousand kernel weight, plant height, and productivity traits suggest that the selection of biotypes with shorter stem, fewer spikelets and grains per spike is appropriate for grain weight increasing.

Keywоrds: Thinopyrum intermedium, spring wheat, winter wheat, breeding, perennial cultures, Sova variety, spike, valuable traits, correlations, yield, grain, hay, grain quality, roots, rhizosphere microorganisms.

 

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