doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2019.1.186eng

UDC 632.4:615.9


OF WHITE MUSTARD (Sinapis alba L.)

A.A. Burkin1, G.P. Kononenko1, L.V. Mosina2

1All-Russian Research Institute of Sanitary, Hygiene and Ecology — Branch of Federal Science Center Skryabin and Kovalenko All Russian Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary RAS, 5, Zvenigorodskoe sh., Moscow, 123022 Russia, e-mail (✉ corresponding author),;
2Timiryazev Russian State Agrarian University—Moscow Agrarian Academy, 49, ul. Timiryazevskaya, Moscow, 127550 Russia, e-mail

Burkin A.A.
Mosina L.V.
Kononenko G.P.

Received July 7, 2018


Crops widely represented on cultivated lands and often found in natural botanical formations have attracted increasing attention of researchers in recent years. This is due not only to their economic importance, but also to the high value of both experimental facilities that allow studying the features of the formation of the diversity of biocenotic connections and ecological equilibria. According to modern concepts, a complex of secondary substances in plants is increasingly seen as a joint product of their associations with microorganism communities, mainly microscopic fungi (S. Kusari et al., 2012). Recently, Russian researchers performed the first cycle of studies aimed at a comparative study of the content of mycotoxins in cereals and legumes in industrial crops and in the natural habitat (G.P. Kononenko et al., 2015; A.A. Burkin et al., 2017). In the present work, we obtained first information about the nature of the contamination of cruciferous plants with toxic metabolites of microscopic fungi, revealed for the first time differences in their localization in vegetative and generative organs, as well as changes accompanying the full development cycle. The aim of this work was to study the composition and content of mycotoxins in the white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), a cultivated plant of wide application, which also easily populates agricultural land and occurs in natural grass stands. For analysis, we used overground parts of plants and their organs (leaves, stems, flowers, pods) collected in the white mustard monoculture in 2017 during distinct phases of plant development. These phases were i) the beginning of the growing season after the completed formation of plant basic structure, ii) mass flowering, iii) the formation of green pods and iv) full ripening. The mycotoxins determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were T-2 toxin (T-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins (FUM), alternariol (AOL), aflatoxin B1 (AB1), sterigmatocystin (STE), roridin A (ROA), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), emodin (EMO), ochratoxin A (OA), citrinin (CIT), mycophenolic acid (MPA), PR toxin (PR) and ergot alkaloids (EA). AOL, CPA, and EA were found in the mycotoxin complex of Sinapis alba organs during vegetation period, and all other metabolites were absent or detected sporadically. The very moderate accumulation of mycotoxins in this plant is a useful economic property, and previously no such slightly contaminated cultures were detected among examined cereals and legumes. During the vegetation of the mustard, the composition of mycotoxins and the quantitative ratios between them were generally stable, but the content of AOL and CPA decreased as the plant matured. Mass flowering was accompanied by the appearance in the plant of fusariotoxins DAS, DON, FUM, which were not detected in the next phase (pod formation). In experiments with individual organs of Sinapis alba, multiple and intense flower contamination with all analyzed mycotoxins, complete absence of fusariotoxins in green and ripe pods, as well as increased levels of AOL accumulation in leaves compared with stems are established for the first time. Possible causes of this phenomenon, the scientific and practical significance of new information on the degree of contamination, seasonal dynamics and accumulation of mycotoxins in this plant, as well as the prospects for further scientific research are discussed.

Keywords: white mustard, Sinapis alba, mycotoxins, T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, alternariol, aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin, roridin A, cyclopiazonic acid, emodin, ochratoxin A, citrinin, mycophenolic acid, PR toxin, ergot alkaloids, enzyme immunoassay.




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